Mind the gap: Sex, gender, and intersectionality in military-to-civilian transitions

August, 2021

This paper reviews existing research on military-to-civilian transition (MCT), specifically in terms of sex, gender and intersectionality.


Both scholarship and policy on military-to-civilian transition (MCT) suffer from a fundamental lacuna: too often the military and Veteran population is treated as homogeneous. What challenges do historically under-represented (i.e., women, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, other sexual or gender minority, Black, Indigenous, and People of Colour) military service members and Veterans face during MCT? What government policies, programs, and initiatives exist internationally that address their specific needs? The authors identified 1,077 sources published from 2010 onward that met study inclusion criteria, with the vast majority focusing on the U.S. context. The findings highlight sex-, gender-, and other-identity-based vulnerabilities and challenges for military members and Veterans in relation to health outcomes, trauma experiences, employment and housing, and access to care and services. The scoping review also identified government initiatives and tailored programs that exist internationally to address diverse Veteran needs. Truly intersectional research and programming on MCT is not well developed. Canadian research and government initiatives related to MCT that are informed by SGBA or GBA+ are also limited, and this gap needs to be kept in mind.

Full Reference

Mind the gap: Sex, gender, and intersectionality in military-to-civilian transitions Eichler Maya, Smith-Evans Kimberley, Spanner Leigh, and Tam-Seto Linna Journal of Military, Veteran and Family Health.

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