Glossary of Terms
 
Australia

Canada

New Zealand

United Kingdom

United States
LanguageEnglishEnglish/FrenchEnglish/MaoriEnglishEnglish
Type of GovernmentParliamentary Democracy / CommonwealthParliamentary Democracy/ Constitutional MonarchyParliamentary Democracy/ CommonwealthParliamentary Democracy/ Constitutional MonarchyFederal Republic
GDPVery HighVery HighHighVery HighExtremely High
Population23.8M35.9M4.55M65M325M
Unemployment6.00%6.90%5.60%6.30%6.20%
Median Age38.441.837.740.437.8
Income Inequality (0=perfect)34.9433.6532.5741.06
Urban/Rural population %89/1182/1886/1482/1882/18
Education Duration (years)1312131312
Life Expectancy8282818179
Internet Use (%)8587869287
Military Expenditure (% GDP)1.950.971.191.953.32
Predominant Healthcare SystemGovernment Funded / Private Health InsuranceGovernment FundedGovernment FundedGovernment FundedPrivate Health Insurance
Ex-Service & Veteran Population.35M.7M31,0002.5-3M25M

Military Terms

 Meaning
Australia

Canada

New Zealand

United Kingdom

United States
Armed ForcesThe military forces of a country. Also called Armed Services or Defence Force(s)Royal Australian Navy, Australian Army, Royal Australian Air ForceRoyal Canadian Navy, Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Air ForceRoyal New Zealand Navy, New Zealand Army, Royal New Zealand Air ForceRoyal Navy/Royal Marines, British Army, Royal Air ForceUnited States Navy, United States Army, United States Marine Corps, United States Coast Guard
Department/Ministry of DefenceThe part of the government responsible for matters of defence. Such a department usually includes all branches of the military, and is usually controlled by a Defence Minister, Minister of Defence, or Secretary of DefenseDepartment of DefenceDepartment of National DefenceMinistry of DefenceMinistry of DefenceDepartment of Defense
Deployment (operational)The movement of armed forces and their support infrastructure for the purpose of conducting military operations. Also known as Tour of DutyStandard deployment length 6-8 monthsStandard deployment length 6 monthsStandard deployment length 6 monthsStandard deployment length 6 months (Army) 4 months (RAF) and 4-9 months (RN)Standard deployment length 9 months (Army) 4-6 months (Air Force) and 6-9 months (Navy/Marines)
GI Bill (of Rights)Various Congressional bills enacted to provide funds for college educations, home-buying loans, and other benefits for armed-services veterans (US)Publicly Funded Further Education/Higher Education
ResettlementThe voluntary or involuntary (re-)integration of a person in a new or changed geographical and/or cultural setting or context after previously having been removed from the same or another setting. Provision of assistance in the process of transition at the end of military serviceJSP 534 The Tri-Service Resettlement Manual
TransitionThe process or a period of changing from one state or condition to another. Military to civilian transition (MCT) - the support, advice and education that enhances personal knowledge and awareness and supports a service person's personal development and long-term planningTransition: Individual Planning and Personal Development
VeteranSomeone who serves/has served in the Armed Forces. Qualifying criteria differ from nation to nation (see right), with some nations requiring overseas operational serviceA person (or deceased person) who has:
rendered eligible war service, or
is a member of the defence forces who on or after 31 July 1962 was outside Australia, but not on operational service, who was killed or injured by the action of hostile forces.
Any former member of the Canadian Armed Forces who successfully underwent basic training and is honourably released.a veteran of the New Zealand Armed Forces with qualifying operational service under the Veterans Support Act
a civilian deployed with the New Zealand Defence Force, with qualifying operational service under the Veterans Support Act
a recipient of the New Zealand Operational Service Medal, with service in the New Zealand Armed Forces or the New Zealand Police
a Land Girl with the New Zealand Womens Land Service during the Second World War.
One day's service in the Armed Forces or Royal Fleet Auxiliary(post 1980) Full period (2 years) of active (full-time) service in Armed Forces incl Coast Guard, unless wounded/sick from service. Discharged under non-dishonorable conditions
Veterans AffairsGovernment departments or agencies responsible for administering policy/service provision on behalf of veterans and dependants.Department of Veterans' Affairs Veterans Affairs Canada New Zealand Veterans' Affairs Ministry of Defence
Veterans UK
Department of Veterans Affairs

Academic Terms

Terms 
AbbreviationThe short form of a word or phrase
AbductiveA form of logical inference which goes from an observation to a theory which accounts for the observation, ideally seeking to find the simplest and most likely explanation
AbstractA short summary of the aims and scope of a journal article
AgencyThe capacity of a person to act in any given environment
AllegoryA story, poem, or picture that can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, typically a moral or political one
AnthropologyThe study of various aspects of humans within past and present societies. Social anthropology and cultural anthropology study the norms and values of societies
Appendix (plural – appendices)A section at the end of a book or article containing supplementary information
AuthorityA well-known expert on a subject
BiasA subjective preference for one point of view
BibliographyA list of sources an author has read but not specifically cited
Case studyA section of an essay which examines one example in detail
CitationAn in-text reference providing a link to the source
CohesionLinking ideas in a text together by use of reference words
ComorbidityThe presence of one or more additional diseases or disorders co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder
ConclusionThe final section of an essay or report
ConcomittantNaturally accompanying or associated
ConstructAn idea or theory containing various conceptual elements, typically one considered to be subjective and not based on empirical evidence
Criteria (singular – criterion)The principles on which something is judged or based
DeductiveCharacterized by or based on the inference of particular instances from a general law. Deduction theory Leads out from theory.
DemographyThe statistical study of populations that is used to analyze a dynamic living population, i.e., one that changes over time or space. Demography encompasses the study of the size, structure, and distribution of these populations, and spatial or temporal changes in them in response to birth, migration, ageing, and death
DevianceThe fact or state of diverging from usual or accepted standards, especially in social or sexual behaviour
Edited bookA book with contributions from number of writers, controlled by an editor
EmpiricalDerived from or guided by experiment or experience
Epistemology How we acquire, label and organise our knowledge
EpidemiologyThe study and analysis of the patterns, causes, and effects of health and disease conditions in defined populations
EthnographyThe scientific description of peoples and cultures with their customs, habits, and mutual differences
Experimental (research)Research carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis. Experiments provide insight into cause-and-effect by demonstrating what outcome occurs when a particular factor is manipulated. Experiments vary greatly in goal and scale, but always rely on repeatable procedure and logical analysis of the results
ExtractA piece of text taken from a longer work
Grey (Literature)Grey literature is any information that is not produced by commercial publishers. It includes conference proceedings, theses, research reports, working papers, preprints, white papers and reports produced by government departments, academics, business and industry
Grounded TheoryThe generation of theory from systematic research. A set of rigorous research procedures leading to the emergence of conceptual categories
HypothesisA theory which a researcher is attempting to explore/ test
HithertoUntil now or until the point in time under discussed
IdiographicRelating to the study or discovery of particular scientific facts and processes, as distinct from general laws
IntroductionThe first part of an essay or article
InductiveThe inference of general laws from particular instances
InterpretivistAn approach to social science that opposes the positivism of natural science
JournalAn academic publication in a specialised area, published monthly-quarterly
JuxtapositionThe fact of two things being seen or placed close together with contrasting effect
Literature reviewA description of other research on the topic in question
Longtitudinal (study)A type of correlational research that involves looking at subjects over the course of many years/decades to discover relationships between variables
Meta-analysisA statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies
Meta-dataData that describes other data. Metadata summarizes basic information about data, which can make finding and working with particular instances of data easier. For example, author, date created and date modified and file size are examples of very basic document metadata
MetaphysicsThe branch of philosophy that deals with the first principles of things, including abstract concepts such as being, knowing, identity, time, and space
Mixed methodsResearch including the use of more than one method of data collection or research in a research study or set of related studies, including the mixing of qualitative and quantitative data, methods, methodologies, and/or paradigms in a research study or set of related studies
OrthodoxFollowing or conforming to the traditional or generally accepted rules or beliefs of a religion, philosophy, or practice
ParadigmA typical pattern or example of something; a pattern or model. A distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field
ParadoxA statement that is self-contradictory because it often contains two statements that are both true, but in general, cannot both be true at the same time
ParaphraseA re-writing of a text with substantially different wording and organisation but similar ideas
Peer-reviewThe process of collecting comment from academic authorities on an article before publication in a journal. This system gives increased credibility to the publication
PlagiarismUsing another writer’s work without acknowledgement in an acceptable manner
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)A mental disorder that can develop after exposure to a traumatic event. Symptoms may include disturbing thoughts, feelings, or dreams related to the events, mental or physical distress to/avoidance of trauma-related cues, alterations in how a person thinks and feels, and increased arousal. These symptoms last for more than a month after the event
PostulateA thing suggested or assumed as true as the basis for reasoning, discussion or belief
Primary researchOriginal research e.g. a laboratory experiment or a sociological enquiry where new data is sought by the researcher
PsychiatryThe study and treatment of mental illness, emotional disturbance, and abnormal behaviour
PsychologyThe scientific study of the human mind and its functions, especially those affecting behaviour in a given context
Qualitative (research)Research method used to gain an understanding of subjective meanings and context. It is used to understand people’s experiences, views, opinions, and motivations. Qualitative research is typically used to capture a higher degree of detail that quantitative methods can enable, and to undertake in-depth analysis of a topic from the perspective of those involved. Qualitative data collection methods incorporate a range of techniques including (but not limited to) unstructured interviews, semi-structured interviews, visual methods, focus groups, observations, and internet-based research. The sample size is typically smaller than quantitative research and is selected based on groups or individuals able to provide information-rich cases. Rather than statistical generalisation, qualitative research aims for detail, context, and nuance
Quantitative (research)Research method using data that can be transformed into useable statistics. It is used to quantify attitudes, opinions, behaviors, and other defined variables – and generalise results from a larger sample population. Quantitative Research uses measurable data to formulate facts and uncover patterns in research. Quantitative data collection methods are much more structured than Qualitative data collection methods. Quantitative data collection methods include various forms of surveys, face-to-face interviews, telephone interviews, longitudinal studies, website interceptors, online polls, and systematic observations
QuotationUse of the exact words of another writer to illustrate a fact, idea or point
RedundancyThe unnecessary repetition of ideas or information
ReferencesA list of all the sources cited in the work
SociologyThe study of the development, structure, and functioning of human society
SourceThe original text used to obtain an idea or piece of information
SummaryA shorter version of something
SynonymA word or phrase with a similar meaning to another
SynopsisA summary of an article or book
TermWord or phrase used to express a special concept
TheoreticalConcerned with or involving the theory of a subject or area of study rather than its practical application
WellbeingThe state of being comfortable, healthy and/or happy